Stability - Introduction

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  • Archimedes formulates the basis for flotation.
  • Explanation of the stability possible with the Newtonian Laws
  • In 1746, Pierre Bouguer, the French polymath and member of French Academy of Sciences, introduced the notion of metacentrum and metacentric height as a measure of initial stability in his landmark work, "Traite de navire, de sa construction et de ses mouvements"
  • In 1749, L. Euler, member of Russian Academy of Sciences, introduces a formula for metacentric radius, and a theorem for equi-volume waterplanes in his landmark work, "Naval Architecture".
  • In 1796, Atwood published a method for calculation of the righting arm at a given heel angle.
  • In the second half of 19th century the English naval architect Reed showed that it was inadequate to know the initial metacentric height for the characterization of the stability of a ship at large inclinations.


  • Statics and Dynamics of the Ship - V. Semyonov, Tyan, Shansky
  • Principles of Naval Architecture. Publisher SNAME